I took a number of GIS courses at Colgate where I learned many aspects of map making and analysis.
Digitizing: Georegistering/georeferencing an image, Creating an empty geodatabase, Digitizing features from an image into the geodatabase, Editing digitized features
Vector Analysis: Selecting features by location (spatial joins and location queries), Vector data analysis (buffering and overlaying), Feature manipulation for vector analysis (clipping and dissolving)
Raster Analysis: Displaying Digital Elevation Model (DEM) , Slope calculations, Calculating aspect, Hillshade, Calculating a viewshed, Neighborhood statistics, Zonal statistics, Extract by Mask, Distance/buffer analysis, Reclassification, Vector to raster conversion, Using the raster calculator, Raster to vector conversion
TEMPERATURE INTERPOLATION IN USA
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allows you to determine values of areas if you have some data but not data for all of the area you would like. Through interpolation and the well placed data points you can extract where species may be found, pollution density, etc.
In this example, the temperature of the USA was estimated given the temperature highs and lows provided by a few weather stations scattered throughout the country.